Development of Public Spaces as a Tool to Increase Social Cohesion: Experience for Kazakhstan


As the UN reports, more than half of the world population has lived in cities since 2007, and it is expected that this figure will rise to 60% by 2030. At the same time, the importance of urban planning is increasing, which improper implementation can cause an increase in inequality and affect the environment.

By 2030, 61.2% of Kazakhstanis, or more than 12 million people, including more than 66% of the country’s youth, will be living in cities. Rapid urbanization creates challenges for urban authorities, which need to make significant efforts to ensure that settlements develop evenly, providing equal access to jobs, education, services and infrastructure.

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